|6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2018
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]
Components of the income tax provision are as follows (in thousands):
The effective tax rate for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 was 24.4% and 18.6%, respectively, and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 was 34.2% and 34.8%, respectively. The lower 2018 effective tax rates reflect lower corporate tax rates as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the "Tax Act") passed in December 2017 and the lower year-to-date rate also reflects the impact from the President signing the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 in February 2018, which included a retroactive extension of the Internal Revenue Code ("IRC") §45L new energy efficient homes credit that had previously expired in 2016. This extension provision provides for a single year extension of energy tax credits for homes sold in 2017 that meet the qualification criteria. Under ASC 740, the effects of these tax credits were required to be recorded in 2018, based on the date of enactment, regardless of the retroactive treatment. Our tax rate for 2017 does not include energy credits, but was favorably impacted by the homebuilding manufacturing deduction, which was eliminated for 2018 under the Tax Act. We anticipate that with the completion of our 2017 income tax returns, future guidance and additional information and interpretations with respect to the Tax Act will cause us to further adjust the provisional amounts recorded as of December 31, 2017. In accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, we will record such adjustments in the period that relevant guidance or additional information becomes available and our analysis is completed.
At June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, we have no unrecognized tax benefits. We believe that our current income tax filing positions and deductions will be sustained on audit and do not anticipate any adjustments that will result in a material change. Our policy is to accrue interest and penalties on unrecognized tax benefits and include them in federal income tax expense.
We determine our deferred tax assets and liabilities in accordance with ASC 740-10, Income Taxes. We evaluate our deferred tax assets, including the benefit from net operating losses ("NOLs"), by jurisdiction to determine if a valuation allowance is required. Companies must assess whether a valuation allowance should be established based on the consideration of all available evidence using a “more likely than not” standard with significant weight being given to evidence that can be objectively verified. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability, the length of statutory carry forward periods, experiences with operating losses and experiences of utilizing tax credit carry forwards and tax planning alternatives. We have no valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets and NOL carryovers at June 30, 2018.
At June 30, 2018, we had no remaining federal NOL carry forward or un-utilized federal tax credits. At June 30, 2018, and December 31, 2017 we had tax benefits for state NOL carry forwards of $1.8 million, net of federal benefit, that begin to expire in 2028.
At June 30, 2018, we have income taxes payable of $8.2 million, which primarily consists of current federal and state tax accruals, net of estimated tax payments and tax credits. This amount is recorded in Accrued liabilities on the accompanying unaudited balance sheet at June 30, 2018.
We conduct business and are subject to tax in the U.S. and several states. With few exceptions, we are no longer subject to U.S. federal, state, or local income tax examinations by taxing authorities for years prior to 2013. We have one state income tax examination of multiple years under audit at this time and do not expect it to have a material outcome.