Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Components of the income tax provision are as follows (in thousands): 
  Three Months Ended March 31,
  2023 2022
Federal $ 26,440  $ 56,345 
State 7,562  12,284 
Total $ 34,002  $ 68,629 

The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 was 20.6% and 24.0%, respectively. The lower tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2023 reflects the increased §45L energy-efficient homes federal tax credit on qualifying homes under the Internal Revenue Code ("IRC") enacted in the Inflation Reduction Act ("IRA") in August 2022. There were no such credits available in the first three months of 2022.

The IRA retroactively extended the IRC §45L energy-efficient homes federal tax credit to homes delivered from January 1, 2022 through December 31, 2032, modified the energy standards required to qualify for the tax credit and increased the per-home credit amount starting in 2023. Among other provisions, the IRA also created a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax on certain profits and a 1% excise tax on net stock repurchases. The alternative minimum tax and excise tax were effective for us on January 1, 2023 and did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
At March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, we have no unrecognized tax benefits. We believe our current income tax filing positions and deductions will be sustained on audit and do not anticipate any adjustments that will result in a material change. Our policy is to accrue interest and penalties on unrecognized tax benefits and include them in the provision for income taxes.
We determine our deferred tax assets and liabilities in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes. We evaluate our deferred tax assets, including the benefit from net operating losses ("NOLs"), by jurisdiction to determine if a valuation allowance is required. This evaluation considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of cumulative losses, forecasts of future profitability, the length of statutory carry forward periods, experiences with operating losses and experiences of utilizing tax credit carry forwards and tax planning alternatives. We have no NOLs or credit carryovers, and determined that no valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets is necessary at March 31, 2023.
At March 31, 2023, we have $45.4 million in income taxes payable and no income taxes receivable. The income taxes payable primarily consists of current federal and state tax accruals, net of current energy tax credits and estimated tax payments and is recorded in Accrued liabilities on the accompanying unaudited consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2023.
We conduct business and are subject to tax in the U.S. both federally and in several states. With few exceptions, we are no longer subject to U.S. federal, state, or local income tax examinations by taxing authorities for years prior to 2018. We have no federal or state income tax examinations being conducted at this time.